Understanding Emergence: How Complexity Theory Requires Getting Out of the Military’s Favored Newtonian Box

image source: https://www.standard.co.uk/hp/front/ever-seen-a-flock-of-sheep-hold-up-traffic-in-central-london-behold-the-history-of-the-london-traffic-jam-8932900.html

The above image is similar to one I saw at a car museum in the Black Forest a few years ago, and it has stuck in my head for a useful way to explain a few critical aspects on complexity theory to military audiences. Emergence is an essential quality of complexity, and not at all found in simplistic or…



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